Friday, November 15, 2019
Why students may choose Malaysia as a place to study
Why students may choose Malaysia as a place to study Introduction 1.0 Introduction Several research have been done on international students travel patterns, behaviors, motivations and expenditures. In 2008 the Higher Education Ministry Marketing and International Education Division director Dr Mohamed Nasser Mohamed Noor together with the immigration department did an observation on numbers of international students that came to Malaysia and found that the numbers has increased 30% from the previous year which is 65,000 compared to 48,000 in year 2006. The total number is the sum of international students that enrolled in both of the public and the private international institution of higher education. According to Ahmad Nazri (2005) by the year 2010 the government expected and targeted 100,000 international students further their studies in Malaysia and since then, numerous of study either on the travel patterns, behaviors, motivations or expenditures of the international students in Malaysia had been done by public and private university students. Dato Sri Ng Yen Yen, (2009) concludes that Malaysias tourism industry is the second (2nd) highest contributor to the country and it contributed significantly to the Malaysian economy. By importing and receiving more international students they will play the role as a domestic tourist and also a host to visiting friends and relatives (VFR) who came down visiting Malaysia. Studies have proven that the international students and their VFR spends a lot in domestically which will give an impact towards the country economy. For 2005, the Malaysian government estimated that the international students have contributed RM1.5 billion to the Malaysia economy. Tourism has a variety economy impacts. Either direct or indirect contributions. The most direct contribution towards the economy is using local transportation like bus, train or domestic flight and lodging to local accommodations. Other than that, tourist expenditure towards the attractions such as amusement park, museum, shopping complex and restaurants also been categorized as a direct contribution. All in all, Malaysia is still lacking of observation on this issues because other than promoting and expand the information on Malaysia being the international high education, the government didnt invest in anything to maintain and sustain the fact that there will be more than 100, 000 international students that going to enrolled in local and international institutions from public and private universities to public and private colleges. Table 1 as stated above shows the top 10 countries of international students in Malaysia in 2010. A complete draft of the top 10 countries of international students in Malaysia will be attach as Appendix A for future reference. From the table, it shows that, majority of the international students are from china. International students have their own motivation or intention on why they study abroad on certain country. These motivations can be clarified as multi dimension where it may attract by various factors. One of the various factors may involved push and pull motives in bringing them or taking them out of their comfort zone. It may not be the education factors that attract the international students to study abroad it maybe the destination itself. The attractiveness of a destination according to Metin Kozak on his comparative analysis of tourist motivations by nationality and destinations article is an important element that pulls the tourist in their decision making towards the destination. On the global scale as per mention by Weaver and Oppermann, domestic travelers is one of the biggest contributor to the country where there spend a lot compared to the international travelers. International students who stays in a particular country for more than a year and have still have their student permit is consider as domestic tourist. Therefore, whenever they are out vacation or spending in the country (40kilometers away from their resident) itself, there are call domestic tourist. There are numerous of factors in why the international students travel domestically during their study in a particular country. To add up, the Malaysian government has come out with holidays breaks or holiday seasons throughout the year not only for schools but also for working labors. This holiday breaks and holiday season more or less a direct and indirect motivation to all residents of Malaysia to go out and have their vacation and spend. Table 2 as stated below is the holiday breaks and holiday season in Malaysia throughout the year. 1.1 Problem Statement Based on the Ninth Malaysian Plan that Malaysia is becoming the hub of education due the unique education system, Malaysia has a range of qualifications and courses that has been provided in numerous institutions from public and private universities to public and private colleges. Currently more and more international students all over the world interested in studying in Malaysia. The main attractions that attracts the international students to study away from their home may be because of the affordable living cost and tuition fees. Other than that the well planned infrastructure and culture, language and heritage. There is a lot to inquiry in the matter on why or what influenced them to come and study in Malaysia. Majority of the international students that enrolled in the Malaysian institutions are from China and Indonesia and followed by the Middle East and the African countries. Other than that, Malaysia also received great feedbacks from Japan, India, the United States and the United Kingdom. Other than the country that listed, Malaysian government had planned to promote and expand Malaysian international High Education at more than 70 destinations worldwide. The impact that Malaysia will get based on the hub higher education is massive growth on tourism economy. The more international students that came for education are attempt to stay longer and at once making them a domestic tourist which have more spending power than the local residents that are also known as domestic tourist. For that reason, a findings should be compile on the international students expenditure, travel behaviors, travel patterns and motivations during their study period in Malaysia so that the government understand the trends, need and demand of the international students for future purposes. 1.2 Research study objectives This study is aimed to achieve the following objectives : To investigate why the international students chose Malaysia on pursuing their studies away from their home country To identify the motivations that persuades the international students to travel and spend in Malaysia during their study period. To review how often the international students travel (domestically) during their study period in Malaysia To do a research in what are the main activities and attractions were visited by the international students during their travel in Malaysia. To investigate how much do the international students spends during their travel in Malaysia (domestically) To identify on what did the Malaysian government did to maintain or to promote this blooming activity of absorbing international students to their country. 1.3 Research study question Based on the statement stated earlier, as per follows are the research questions : Why the international students chose Malaysia on pursuing their studies away from their home country? What are the motivations that persuade the international students to travel and spend in Malaysia during their study period? How often the international students travel (domestically) during their study period in Malaysia? What are the main activities and attractions were visited by the international students during their travel in Malaysia? How much the international students spend during their travel in Malaysia (domestically)? What did the Malaysian government did to maintain or to promote this blooming activity of absorbing international students to their country? Scope of study This study will only focus on the travel patterns, behavior, motivation and expenditure of international students in both of local and international institutions from public and private universities to public and private colleges in Selangor. The collection of data will be conduct at four (4) well known local and international institutions in Selangor, KDU University College (Damansara), Segi University College (Damansara), University Malaya (UM) and University Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia. The four (4) listed institutions were picked out from a list of public and private local and international institutions in Selangor provided by the Ministry of Higher Education (www.jpt.mohe.gov.my). The four (4) listed institutions were picked out for this study is because of the location convenience and these four (4) institutions were believe as they are well establish institution in Selangor and were believe to increase the numbers of international students in Malaysia in the future. 1.5 Important of study Malaysia is becoming the hub of education as the Ministry of Education is aiming for the best and excellence education to attract the international students from all over the world to come and study in Malaysia. The intention of this study is to examine the contribution of international students towards Malaysia economy. By studying on the international students travelling patterns, behaviors, motivations and expenditure is important for the government and country where the government will know where the direct and indirect economic contributions came from and who or what are the major contributors to the country. By investigating the contributions and the contributor, not only the government but also the industry and the academic or education sector will attempts to understand the economic impact of the country that they had been brought in. Education sector for some country play a very important role on maintaining on their country economy. Generally education activities will lead to tourism activities and indirectly benefits the country economy. Nonetheless, by studying the motivations and the characteristic of the international students we could examine what are the key points of the attractions that attracted them so the government or the country could upgrade and maintain the attractions for future purposes. This is very important for Malaysian Tourism board to understand the international students markets towards Malaysia. With this study it will bring equal benefits to the Malaysia education and Malaysia tourism sector. This study will also help the government keep track on the numbers of the international students that came in achieving the target 100,000 international students by the year 2010. CHAPTER TWO Literature review 2.0 Introduction Literature review is needed in order to make this study relevant and applicable. Most of the literature review is from previous research and studies on international students travel patterns, behaviors, expenditure and motivations. In clarifying the research objectives and research question that was mention in chapter one, literature review is the utmost important component in this study. Various different sources were used in locating relevant information on this study. These includes library catalogue (Elib.kdu.edu.my, webpac.kdu.edu.my and elsivier-ebooks.com), online data based (bibliography, abstracts and dissertation, magazine and news) and most of related journal articles were reviewed from Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Journal of Tourism Studies, Journal of Travel Research, Journal of Vacation Marketing and other relevant journal articles that are related to the studies. After reviewing most of the journal articles, it seems that literature review on this study is limited here in Malaysia which means this study was not taken into a serious discussion. Theoretical and conceptual framework is been analyzed in this study in order to identify the main theory or factors and also to identify limitation of the study. As per listed are the findings from all the literature and it has been summarized accordingly. The literature that related to international students travel patterns, behaviors, expenditure and motivations were put into 1) Push and Pull factors : Motivation on study abroad, 2) Push and Pull factors : Motivation on travelling domestically, 3) Pull factors : motivation in spending 4) Most of the theories were found help us to understand the research question that have been stated in chapter one as per below. The research questions : What motivates international students choose Malaysia on pursuing their studies. What are the motivations that persuade the international students to travel and spend in Malaysia during their study period? How often the international students travel (domestically) during their study period in Malaysia? What are the main activities and attractions were visited by the international students during their travel in Malaysia? How much the international students spend during their travel in Malaysia (domestically)? What did the Malaysian government did to maintain or to promote this blooming activity of absorbing international students to their country? 2.1 Push and Pull factors : Motivation on study abroad A number of theory that been studied on the motivation on students study abroad. Push and pull factors are the main factors in driving students to study abroad. Push factors is a intangible factor where its pushing the students to go out from home and study abroad and moving out from their comfort zone due to the socioeconomic, economic, political and other circumstances that involved in their home country while for pull factors is a tangible factor where a destination is pulling the students to study at this particular country maybe because the stable economy, politics, infrastructure and other benefits of the host country. In simple words, the relation of pull and push factors are link to the destination choice of the international students depending on the destination attractiveness, influence and satisfaction of the destination. The international students market in coming to a particular country will generate direct or indirect economy impact as it a growing global market trend nowadays. An investigation made by Jianvittayakit on the travel motivation as the factor of international students chose foreign university in pursuing their study saying that educational factor in particular country is the main motivation to the international students to come to that destination and not the destination attractiveness. With the 88.63 percent response rate on the research survey, it shows that the travel and academic push motivation are important for the student social life where these students have desire to travel to other country and experience a new life in learning a new culture, heritage and language and basically will gain more life and work experience. The results of the study also shows that the pull factors of the destinations and as following are the main motivations on why students are motivate to go to a p articular destinations. The first one is the financial issues is where the economy of the country is stabilize and followed by tourist attraction and safety security of the destination. The findings show that both pull and push factors does have its own factors in influence and motivate the students to study abroad. Table 3 as stated below are the framework on the study of push and pull factors. Table 3 Travel and academic Pull and Push factor motivation Source : Jianvittayakit, L (2010) An investigation of travel motivation as a factor in international students choice of a foreign university : A Thailand case study In order to understand tourist choice of leisure destination, an analysis on the motivation factor on what pull the tourist to the destination is needed. From the study of Zhang, J. Marcussen C.(2007) on Tourist motivation, market segmentation and marketing strategies stated that the pull factors of a particular destination is mainly about the cultural, heritage and the natural attractions of the destinations. The tourist characteristics also play the role in choosing a destination. Example city breaker is a term for tourists that like to travel in the city compared to nature beach is a term for tourists that like to travel where beach are involve. It will also involve the activities and the travel and spending patterns due to significant different between the two (2) characteristic. In the analysis also mention that the destination developer need to understand the needs, wants and demands. The pull and push factors that been highlighted in the study in showing what makes the touris t chose the destination is basically as same as the table that shown above. A study by Mazzarol, T. Soutar, G. (2007) on the Push-Pull factors influencing international students selection of education destination stated the results on why the international students chose particular destination on pursuing their study. The main push factors stated that, due to lack of higher educational program in their home countries made the international students study abroad. Other than that technology development and language also play a role in push factors. For the pull factors, Mazzarol, T. Soutar, G. (2007) stated that there are six (6) main factors that really pull the international students. Information on the host country is needed where the international students may have more knowledge and awareness on the host country. If the host country already been recognize with good reputation, it easily can be recommend by the family, peers and teachers. The cost issues are also one of the main pull factors. The cost issues include the living expenses, the travel cost, tuition fees and others. A cost issue is important to the international students because there have limitation on money. The next factor is the environment and the geography factors. Environment and geography factors cover the climate and safety and security of the destination. No one wants to go to a destination where there are natural disasters. Basically the push and pull factors can be define same as the table 3 shown above. To sum up the push and pull factors on students study abroad, it looks like the push factor may be the main reason or motivation for students to study abroad. The analyze shows that, the limitation of the home country such as higher education programs and economical and political wise makes them travel and expand their horizon to another country where it is more opportunity for them. 2.2 Push and Pull factors : Motivation on travelling domestically People travel to full fill their needs, want and demand such food, climate, family, health, education and others and travelling may be domestically or internationally. People have various and different reason on why they travel domestic or international. A study by Kozak, M (2000) on Comparative analysis of tourist motivations by nationality and destinations is mainly about exploring the differences between the motivations of those who are from different countries travelling to the same destinations and second, between the motivations of those who are from the same countries and travelling to two different destinations 2.3 Pull factors : Motivation on spending CHAPTER THREE Methodology 3.0 Introduction This chapter will have a clearer view on the travel patterns, behaviors, motivations and expenditures by the international students in Malaysia. This chapter will cover the research design, the research instruments, the population and sample and data collection. The time horizon that will be use in this study is cross sectional design where this study will take place only in year 2011. Cross sectional design is different from longitudinal design where cross sectional design only collects data at one single time compared to longitudinal design where the period of collecting the data is a more little longer. 3.1 Research Design In considering the research objectives and question, the quantitative methods will be using in this study in understanding the travel patterns, behaviors, motivations and expenditures by the international students in Malaysia. This study is using survey research method to get more understanding about the respondents. On the designing the study research, these following steps were involve. First is gathering all the literature that is strongly related and relevant to the study to get understanding about the subjects and to educate self. Next step is identify the research objectives together with coming out with the research question on the subject. After identifying both of the research objectives and question, the right research methods were selected to carry the study. Research and analyze on the research instruments will be develop as the online questionnaire survey. Moving on is the step where selecting the population and sample of universities and respondents who will involve in this study. When the population and sample together with the questionnaire has been approved, distributing of the online questionnaire survey to the sample stage will be handling. The results the online questionnaire survey will be collect and analyze for its reliability and usability. And the end stage of the research design is analyzing the data that have been collect and to interpret the result. 3.2 Research Instruments Online questionnaire survey and normal survey papers will be used in this study because it is more appropriate compared than interviews session. Using online questionnaire survey will save time and cost due to this survey will take place in four (4) local and international institutions in Selangor, KDU University College (Damansara), Segi University College (Damansara), University Malaya (UM) and University Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIA) in short period of time. And the advantage of online questionnaire survey is, the respondents which are the international students will have own time on answering the survey. A structured online questionnaire survey will be given to respective lecturers for all four (4) institutions. The lecturers will be ask to give out the online questionnaire to the international students. The questionnaire was developed to compile data on international students travel patterns, behaviors, motivations and expenditures in Malaysia. The online questionnaire survey is in English where English is the language that be easily understand by the international students in Malaysia. The online questionnaire survey begin with a briefly introduction on the purpose of this study informing the respondents that all the survey information is will be only use by this research and all information that been share will be completely confidential. The online questionnaire survey is a close ended question and purposely made in three parts to avoid confusion during the surveys. Demographics characteristic question such as gender, age, country of origin, program studying in Malaysia is in part one of the online questionnaire survey and on the second part of the online questionnaire survey is measuring the on why the international students chose Malaysia in pursuing their studies, what motivates the international students to travel, how much the international students spend during their travel. Both were in close ended questionnaire. The last part of the questionnaire is scaling question. Five point scale range from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree which requires respondents to circle one (1) point for each question 3.3 Population and Sample This study will be conduct at four (4) well known local and international institutions in Selangor, KDU University College (Damansara), Segi University College (Damansara), University Malaya (UM) and University Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIA) which will involve their international students. As per mention in chapter one (1), the four (4) listed intuitions were picked out from a list of public and private local and international institutions in Selangor provided by the Ministry of Higher Education (www.jpt.mohe.gov.my). The four (4) listed institutions were picked out for this study is because of the location convenience and these four (4) institutions were believe as they are well establish institution in Selangor and were believe to increase the numbers of international students in Malaysia in the future. Majority of the international students from each institution that stated above will be involve for this study. And from the list, 100 international students from each institution will be selected by using the random sampling method. Random sampling method were chosen because to avoid bias during the whole study. The 100 international students will be choose via the computer using the SPSS version 17 out from the sample frame which will be provide by the institutions. By performing this, each student will have the same chance of being selected meaning there will be no biased. The sample frame consists of all the international students that are studying in the institution. A copy of the online questionnaire survey will be attach as Appendix B for future reference. 3.4 Data Collection The data collection for all four (4) institutions will take place in early March 2011 where new semester will take place. In order to make the data collection of this study flawless, a visit to the administration office of all four (4) institutions will be made in order to secure permission in doing the online survey. An official letter also will be given to make it official. A copy of the official letter of performing the online survey will attach as Appendix C for future reference. According to all four (4) administration officer, the easiest way to reach for the international students in completing the survey is during their computer classes. The site or the URL of the online questionnaire survey will be given to the respective lecturer and the site or the URL will be given to the respondents at the end of their class. 3.5 Data Analysis In analyzing the data that will be collect, frequency analysis will be use in summarizing the data. Frequency analysis is one of the descriptive statistic components where it only can be computed by the computer. Analyzing by using the SPSS version 17, the summary of the data will be shown in histogram forms. Other than the frequency analysis methods, the chi square test also will be use to test the relationship between the demographics and the travel patterns, behaviors, motivations and expenditures of the international students. Correlation and regression also will be use in this data analysis. Both methods will be use in order to analyze two (2) variables whether they associated with each other or otherwise.