Thursday, April 4, 2019
Alison, Bruce: Two Genders with a Common Identity
Alison, Bruce Two Genders with a Common identicalnessIvory Coast is a west Afri mint country where homosexuality is zero(prenominal) acknowledged. Even though it is practiced by a minority, they engender to keep it dark. recreation star sign is active individualism. In a tragicomic t unity, Alison Bechdel transcends two secrets in her autobiography. These secrets atomic number 18 about gender and identity. Fun Home is home to a special family, an old artificer Bruce Bechdel and his family. This family is not ordinary. by and by Bruces death, which his girlfriend Alison, considers being a self-destruction, his homosexuality is disc every endueed. Alison believes her forefathers suicide might be due to the declaration of her lesbianism. She has a common past with Bruce they both(prenominal) live been privacy the truth about their gender taste perception. Bechdel occasions the art of allusion to describe a complex relationship between Bruce and Alison. She says, In our offseticular reenactment of this mythic relationship, it was not me but my father who was to plummet from the sky. (Bechdel 4). Through this metaphor, Alisons situation is the contrary to the existing story, the daughter should have been the sensation to plunge. It is an unusual situation describing two characters, where Bruce is a man and he the likes ofs men. Alison is a woman but she prefers female persons. Physically and emotionally, Bruce and Alison experience distance. Yet, being airy they both had much in common.Physically, Alison was outside from Bruce. She starts her autobiography with an image of herself with her father playing the Icarian Games. With this game, Alison mystifys one of the few physical contacts with her father. The author alludes to her father as being both Icarus and Daedalus, an ultimate artist who sees his children as fly the cooping materials. Bechdel says, Daedalus, too, was in varied to the human cost of his bulge out (Bechdel 11). This aspect of the book shows the inadequacy of affection establishing a gap between father and daughter. It likewise describes a complicated relationship between these two characters, characterized by an obstinate Bruce forgetting family affection.Not only physical, this detachment was also emotional. Alison early suspects the sexual identity of her father. Seeing her father using a bronzing stick was proof that he belonged to a contrary moral ethic from the norm. Bruce was gay but to further complicate the situation he preferred teenagers. Bruce had a secret relation with Roy, his yardwork assistant/baby-sister. These two characters were oppositeness, Alison feeling comfort able with short hairs and male attitudes, sees her father as a feminist. During an interview on the NPR radio, Bechdel says, Its like one of the first things I toy with is wanting to wear boys clothes and fighting with my dad about it. (NPR). She was prevented from expressing her masculinity. Bechdel illustrates this aspect in a discussion between Alison and her father when Bruce says, I dont c be Next while I see you without it, Ill wheal you. (Bechdel 97). Holding his daughter away from her desires, Bruce creates more distance than there was already.Despite being distant Alison and her father sh atomic number 18 similarities, they both had a secret. This disparity from Bruce pushes Alison into more understanding of her father. In the quest to reconstruct her fathers history, legion(predicate) common aspects show up. afterward the brutal death of Bruce, that Alison alludes as a queer in either sense of that multivalent word, she unveiled her fathers secret. Bechdel emphasizes the detection of this secret by a sensual picture of Roy in the book. She says, Its low-contrast and out of focus. But the state is clearly our yardwork assistant/babysitter, Roy (Bechdel 100). The picture has a double effect in the book. Certainly, it shows the evidence of Bruces sexual identity but it also chara cterizes the sexual longing of Alison. Watson in her analysis of cheer home says, The drawn photo is surrounded by elongated dialogue tags that chronicle Bechdels conicted responses, acknowledging both her identication with her fathers erotic desire for the aesthetic perfection of the boys body, and her distanced critique as a sleuth of this evidence of his secret life. (Watson 41). Still in the 1970s homosexuality was to be hidden in the society. Bruce was keeping his sexual preference secret. Alison was in the same(p) situation too. In a business trip to Philadelphia, they met a woman spruced up like a man who had a short haircut. Alison was amazed, but when her father asked her if she wants to be like this woman, she answered no. But her true answer would have been yes. She kept her sexual identity secret.Furthermore, the secret they each had, was about their identity. Like Bruce, Alison was gay. She developed her mascu verge traits early in her teenage years. Alison says, Inde ed, I had become a novice of masculinity at an early age (Bechdel 95). At a new-fangled age, she was a non-practicing lesbian. Yet she shares this same reality with her father. In a tonic Times article, Gustines says, Shes a lesbian, and sexuality looms large in her memoir. Bechdels father, Bruce, was gay (as she puts it a manic-depressive, closeted fag), and Fun Home is at its heart a story about a daughter trying to understand her father through the common and unspoken bond of their homosexuality (Gustines). Obviously, Alison and her father had this identity in common, they were both homosexuals.In addition to sharing a similar identity, Alison also had common interests with Bruce. Watson in the description of Bruce Bechdel says, Bechdels story about the meaning of Alisons childhood memories not only links her sense of her stimulate sexuality to her fathers secret gay side, it also pleads a recognition about how their lives are linked over generations (Watson 42). From Watson s analysis, there is this aspect of their life that connects them. This connection is emphasized when Alison in Bruces twelfth-grade line. They were so consumed by similar thoughts and readings that the class was mostly animated by only Alison. She says, aroundtimes it was as if Dad and I were the only ones in the room. (Bechdel 199). As if to confirm their similar identity, Bruce decided to bring his daughter to the film. During their revelation one to another, Bechdel states, It was more like fatherless Stephen and sonless bloom (Bechdel 221). This particular moment opens the barrier between these two characters. For the first time, they share unreservedly their sexual orientation.In galore(postnominal) places, especially in West Africa, it is almost impossible for homosexuals to express their identity. The subject of homosexuality is still taboo in some parts of these countries. Through her novel, both tragic and comic, Bechdel draws tending about this particular topic. She s hares this theme about homosexuality represented through Alison and her father. These characters struggling to make an sharp connection. However, they share similarities. Certainly, this family is more complicated relation because father and daughter share an identity not acknowledged. Fun Home comes out of the ordinary because it touches a sensitive subject that concerns the whole society.Work CitedBechdel, Alison. Fun Home A Family Tragicomic. New York Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2006. Print.Gustines, George Gene. Fun Home A Bittersweet Tale of Father and Daughter. The New York Times. The New York Times, 25 June 2006. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.Lesbian Cartoonist Alison Bechdel Countered Dads Secrecy By Being Out And Open. NPR. NPR, 17 Aug. 2015. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.Watson, Julia. Autographic Disclosures and Genealogies of Desire in Alison Bechdels Fun Home. Biography An Interdisciplinary Quarterly, vol. 31, no. 1, Winter2008, pp. 27-58. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com.libdb.dccc.edu/login.a spx?direct=truedb=aphAN=32022609site=ehost-live. Web. 05 Mar. 2017. facile energy Con bundleion Experiment flavorless Muscle Contr save ExperimentBackground information on motionless heftsSmooth brawniness is one of three energy fiber typesetters cases found in animals. Unlike skeletal and cardiac energy cells, round off muscle builder cells are not striated, and have single nuclei. Smooth muscles are typically under ensure of the autonomic nervous system, and do not contract voluntarily. Smooth muscle contracts slowly, and does not exhi twist the trait twitch seen in skeletal muscle. In addition, smooth muscle is not prone to muscle frighten away, reservation it an lofty component of sphincter muscles. Smooth muscle is found in the gastrointestinal tract of umpteen animals, and is responsible for peristaltic movements.Smooth muscle contractions are bear on by calcium and super C ions. Calcium ion influx into the smooth muscle cell initiates a contraction. Potassi um ion concentration in the extra cellular medium affects the resting membrane capability of the cell, bringing it closer to or farther away from its threshold voltage. Neurotransmitters affect different types of smooth muscle differently, depending on the association of the smooth muscle with excitable cells. In general, acetylcholine increases the muscle cells permeableness to calcium, while epinephrine decreases the cells permeability to calcium.Introduction and aim of the tasteThe following report was to test a smooth muscle which was collected from the intestine of a rabbit. The main(prenominal) of this examine was to see how the surrounding purlieu of the muscle could affect how muscle contracted. The examine consisted of different environments and the muscle was monitored and results were save of the bountifulness and the frequence of the wavelengths. The levels of muscle contractions and relaxations were measured using a transducer, a D.C amplifier, and a laborat ory computer.Overview of experimentThe smooth muscle was a small part of the intestine which was prepared localizely by trimming off the attached mesentery and fat. This experiment only required one piece of this smooth muscle and this was then(prenominal) placed into a beaker which was charged and fed Ringer-Locke base this is an aqueous solution containing the chlorides of sodium and potassium and calcium that is isotonic to animal tissues. The experiment only required one piece of small intestine, which had the length of 2-3 cm long. The intestine was held in place with a tissue holder, and was attached to the transducer via a piece of string. The transducer detected contractions and relaxation of the muscle, and via the D.C amplifier showed on the computer the frequency and strength of the contractions and relaxations. The solution that the muscle was placed in was kept at the temperature of 37 Celsius apart from when the environment condition changed was the temperature. Thi s type of setup is known as in vivo preparation. This preparation of the smooth intestine entrusts a precise control of the environmental conditions.Brief description of test carried outThe test which was carried out had hexad parts to it. The first part of the experiment was to gain initial control of the muscle this was done by having optimum conditions for the smooth muscle so it could achieve a steady rate of contraction and relaxation. This was achieved by adding Ringer-Locke solution and keeping it aerated. By having this set up it allowed the muscle environment to be very intimately met to the ideal body environment where the muscle would have a good contraction and relaxation rate. The muscle was left in this preparation until the readings on the computer were constant (about 4 delicates) the initial control was tagged using the comment bar.The following(a) environment was non-aerated this meant to turn the air supply off which was coming to the bathtub where the musc le was held. Then the Ringer-Locke solution was acceptd from the bath and fresh Ringer-Locke solution was then placed into the bath. The yard for removing the old solution was to prevent some(prenominal) in finished readings as the solution could still have contained type O which would have affected the results. This part of the test was put down after every 5, 10, 15 legal proceeding and the results where inserted into a table. The main break up of using this environment was to see what the muscle contractions and relaxations are when there is a lack of atomic number 8. This part of the experiment was once more labelled on the comment bar.The con terminous part of the experiment was to remove the Ringer-Locke solution and replace it with 50ml of glucose take over solution and again results were recorded after every 5 ,10, 15 minutes and recorded into a table.The fourth different environment was change in temperature. The Ringer-Locke solution of 37 Celsius was replaced wi th a Ringer-Locke solution that was cooled to 4 Celsius. The purpose of this environment was to test the muscle activity in a cold environment and to analyse the effects.The fifth environment involved the use of calcium free solution this replaced the Ringer-Locke solution. This was analysed for 5 minutes to see how the muscle activity was affected.The final environment was to do with changes in the pH. The pH was changed from pH7 which is neutral to a different pH. The solution with different pH was prepared before hand and the purpose of this environment was to see what effect a pH change would have on the muscle activity.After each part of the experiment initial control was established before moving on to the next part the reason for this being to keep the muscle running properly before each part of the experiment and to cause less damage to the smooth muscle. Also each part of the experiment was labelled on the comment bar this was done to show each different part clearly so it was not conf utilize. (Clear methods are shown in the printouts)To work out the amplitude of the graph recording two figures were recorded one being the peak of the wave and the other being the lowest part of the waveTo work out the frequency for each part of the experiment the amount of waves were recorded in a minute time period. The frequency in this case was how many times the muscles contracted and relaxed in a minutes. The amplitude was the strength of each contraction and relaxing of the muscle. The maximum and minimum amplitudes were collected for each environment and recorded the amplitude chosen was picked at random as well as the minute where the frequency of waves was calculated. backchat of resultsFirstly a diagram of the intestine is makeed to show how it works and what different types of cells it contains. This is aimed as it exit avail to understand why the muscle behaved differently when tested with six different environments. A diagram of the small intestine i s shown belowThe small intestine contains the 4 basic shapes which are serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa. dainty intestine wall is composed of the same four layers that make up most of the gastrointestinal tract serosa, muscularis, submucosa, and mucosa. The mucosa is composed of a layer of epithelium, lamina propria, and muscularis mucosae. The epithelial layer of the small intestinal musoca consists of simple columnlike epithelium that contains many types of cells. Some of these are the followingEnetrocytes these help with the transport of substances from lumen of the intestine to the circulatory system, synthesis of the glycoprotein enzymes needed for terminal digestion and absorption.Goblet cells these are unicellular mucin also known as secreting glands.Paneth cells these are located at the bottom of the intestinal glands. Their main function is their secretion of granules which contain lysozyme this enzyme helps segmentation bacteria also known as phagocytosis. P aneth cells may have a role in regularisation the microbial population in the small intestine.Enteroendocrine cells these are mostly found again in the dispirit parts of the intestinal gland known as the crypt. The main function of these cells is to release several hormones. The main one beings cholecystokinin, secretin and gastric inhibitory peptide these help increase pancreatic and gallbladder activity.Intermediate cells these are young enterocytes and goblet cell which are able to withstand cell division.Apart from the smooth muscle many other cells and vessels make up the intestine. The small intestine also contains submucosal artery and vein, lymphatic vessel, submucosal plexus, circular layer of smooth muscle, and myenteric plexus. All these tissues, cells, and vessel combine to make the small intestine wall.The smooth muscle in the control environment was able to obtain a steady frequency through out its 4 minute period with 15 waves per minute. The waves which were seen were the smooth muscle assure and relaxing. The amplitude levels of the waves were both instead high-pitched showing strong contractions rate the reason for this was that the environment set was to ideal conditions where the muscle could perform its best. It had a max amplitude of 2.10 and min amplitude of 0.78 which shows that having ideal conditions the muscle is able to behave normally without any problems.The effect of oxygen lack of the smooth muscle cause the small intestine to increase the frequency, at 5 minutes no aerated the frequency had first dropped to 13 and after 15 minutes the frequency of contraction and relaxations had increased to 17 the reason or this being without oxygen the smooth muscles started to have spasms as it was unavailing to contract properly without the oxygen supply needed. Also the amplitude levels decrease quite quickly from 1.94 (max) and 0.47(min) at 5 minutes to 1.58(max) and 0.38 (min) at 15 minutes. The reason for this was that without oxygen the muscle was unable to make the energy needed for strong contractions as the peak is lowered as can be seen on the traces. This was detected by the pull on the string that was attached to the transducer the pull was not as strong so this was recorded on the traces. So without oxygen the muscle cells are still able to make ATP but a small amount. Only about 2 ATP are produced per molecule of glucose in glycolysis. If there is no oxygen present, the Pyruvate produced in glycolysis undergoes fermentation to regenerate the NAD+ used in glycolysis. This is known as anaerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration generates only two ATPs, and lactic sultry is produced. Most lactic acid diffuses out of the cell and into the bloodstream and is subsequently absorbed by the liver. Some of the lactic acid remains in the muscle fibers, where it contributes to muscle fatigue. Because both the liver and muscle fibers moldiness convert the lactic acid back to pyruvic acid when oxygen becomes available, anaerobic respiration is said to produce oxygen debtThe next part of the experiment was to test how the muscle activity differed when placed in glucose free solution. From this part of the test the frequency of muscle activity stayed legitimate throughout the 15 minutes. The traces show consistent movement and also the amplitudes levels differed as at 5 minutes (1.34) the maximum amplitude was low then at 10 minutes (1.51) it wet higher and at 15 minutes (1.37) it decreased again to a similar figure which was at 5 minutes. By looking at this result the results are not as accurate as they should have been, meaning they may have been some smorgasbord of inaccuracy when following the method as without glucose, ATP can not be made and the amplitude of the waves should have been lower.ATP can be made from glucose which is stored in the carbohydrate animal starch. Through the metabolic process of glycogenolysis, glycogen is humbled down to release glucose. ATP is then gene rated from glucose by cellular respiration. Also ATP can be produced from glucose and fatty acids obtained from the bloodstream. When energy requirements are high, glucose from glycogen stored in the liver and fatty acids from fat stored in adipose cells and the liver are released into the bloodstream. Glucose and fatty acids are then absorbed from the bloodstream by muscle cells. ATP is then generated from these energy-rich molecules by cellular respiration. Without glucose the frequecny should hve increased but the amplitudes levels should have decreased as there was not a sufficient energy fountain which could supply the muscle so it could contract and relax.The next part of the experiment consisted of placing the smooth muscle into a cooled solution of 4 Celsius from a change of 37 Celsius. There was not much change to the frequency but it did drop a little bit due to the muscle not being used to these environmental conditions. The amplitude differed from the control readings a s they had decreased but were still quite high as they had the nutrients in the solutions which helped them to contract. If this experiment was left to carry on then there would be further change as the solution would gradually catch fire up to room temperature and this would mean that the smooth muscle activity would increase.Calcium plays a big part in all muscle contraction as well as smooth muscle contraction which is different as it does not contain troponin. In smooth muscles calcium ions enter from outside the cell. They then throw to an enzyme complex on myosin this then breaks up ATP into ADP and then transfers the Pi directly into myosin. By doing this it allows the myosin to activate and from cross ridges with actin. When the calcium is pumped out of the cell, the Pi gets removed from myosin by an enzyme this allows the myosin to become smooth and the smooth muscle is able to relax. This process is also known as myosin regulated contraction.In the experiment where calc ium free solution was added it affected the smooth muscle immensely as the frequency of contracting and relaxing dropped to 12. Also the amplitude levels came down as the contractions and relaxations levels were not strong the max being 0.95 and the minimum being 0.47 if this was left for a longer period of time the frequency levels may have dropped more. Without calcium entering the cell the smooth muscle is unable to do the process which is described above. While making the Ringer-Locke solution it is not only the calcium ions which are important to the smooth muscles. Some others are potassium chloride and sodium chloride, the reason these ions are needed because it helps to portray an environment such as the body with ideal conditions. If only distilled water was used it would mean the cells in the muscles would up take the water and blow up. So these ions are used so they are able to keep a concentration gradient and allow everything to work correctly as it would in the smooth muscles natural environment.The final environment was the change in pH levels. The results showed that the muscle had stopped functioning and there was no reading on the traces. This meant that there was no muscle contraction or relaxing. The reason for this was the muscle had broken down the reason for this muscle fatigue was that the low pH had affected the smooth muscle as it was unable to perform in this type of environment. Also as the low pH solution was there for a certain period of time the muscle was unable to remove it and therefore caused the muscle to breakdown. The low pH may have affected the sarcoplasmic reticulum which may lead to the interfere of the intercellular calcium concentrations, this can lead to long term physical muscle damage as muscle fibers are affected.While preparing the isolated smooth muscle many precautions are taken so the muscle can avoid excessive pH changes. angiotensin converting enzyme of these precautions which are taken is to make sure tha t before inserting the small intestine into the bath. The solution will need to be tested with pH indicator test strips which will give a fairly accurate reading of the solution which the smooth muscle will be placed. This is very important as if the pH is incorrect it will mean that the smooth muscle will not perform to its full potential meaning the results achieved will be inaccurate. To gain accurate results all solutions which are used will need to be checked to see if they are the correct pH by using the ph indicating strips. After this test the smooth muscle was unable to reach the control again as the muscle had broken down.If this experiment was done again at room temperature the results would differ as the performance of the muscle would decrease. This is because the optimum temperature inside the body is around 37 Celsius and this temperature allows the muscle to work at an optimum rate. The lower temperature will mean that muscle contraction will be slower as there will be an effect on enzyme reactions as the more heat there is the more kinetic energy there is this will mean that the muscle activity will be good.If acetylcholine was added to the solution bath of the smooth muscle the membrane potential would decrease and the frequency of waves would increase. The muscle will become more active, with an increase in tonic tension and the number of rhythmic contractions. The effect is mediated by enzymes which increases the intracellular Calcium concentration. another(prenominal) substance which could have been added was adrenaline. Adrenaline allows blood to flow more easily to your muscles. This means that more oxygen is carried to your muscles by the extra blood, which allows your muscles to function at elevated levels. Adrenaline also facilitates the conversion of the bodys fuel source (glycogen) into its fuel (glucose). This carbohydrate gives energy to muscles, and a sudden burst of glucose also allows muscles to strengthen further.Skeletal and smooth muscle muscles differences in structure and functionThere are many differences between the two types of muscles the differences are stated belowSnmooth musclesSkeletal muscleA smooth muscle fiber has no T tubules, and the sarcoplasmic reticulum forms a loose network throughout the sarcoplasm.Are long cyrindrical cells that contain many nucleiSmooth muscle tissue has no myofibrils or sarcomeresThey are striated this shows their precise alignments of their myofilaments.This tissue also has no striations and is called nonstriated muscle. dumb filaments consist of myosin as thin filaments consist mostly of actin.Thick filaments are scattered throughout the sarcoplasm of a smooth muscle cellEach independent cell is stimulated by a force neurone.Adjacent smooth muscle cells are bound together at dense bodies, transmitting the contracted forces from cell to cell throughout the tissue.Connective endomysium seprates cellFunction DifferencesSmooth muscles cells are an involuntary act ion and can work slower so they do not have muscle fatigue.Skeletal Muscle contains both Fast Slow Twitch muscle fibers, that allow for a faster reaction where needed, and the opposite is true for the Slow as wellSmooth muscle lines your arteries and airways and serves to contract or relax to help control blood pressure.skeletal muscles function almost continuously to maintain your posture making one tiny adjustment after another to keep your body uprightThey are also present in the iris of the eye to control the size of the pupil in response to light. By the use of the radial and circular muscle.Skeletal muscle is also important for holding your bones in the correct position and prevents your joints from dislocating. Some skeletal muscles in your face are directly attached to your skinThey line the GI tract to move food through the intestines. This is done by peristalsis.Skeletal muscle generates heat as a by-product of muscle activity. This heat is vital for maintaining your norm al body temperature.